The “open and obvious” defense remains alive and well in Louisiana according to an article penned recently by Professor John M. Church of the LSU Law Center for the Louisiana Association of Defense Counsel. In April 2013, the Louisiana Supreme Court announced Broussard v. State of Louisiana, 2012-1238 (La. 4/5/13), 113 So.3d 175, which muddied the waters regarding use of the “open and obvious” defense. Some read Broussard as a pronouncement that the “open and obvious” defense was essentially dead in Louisiana. However, as reflected in Professor Church’s article, subsequent Louisiana Supreme Court decisions have given new life to the defense.
The defense is based upon the premise that an “open and obvious” defect is non-hazardous, because a reasonably-attentive plaintiff could or should have avoided the harm in the exercise of due care. Before Broussard, courts routinely ruled that a defendant owed no duty to a plaintiff when the alleged defect was “open and obvious.” Following Broussard, courts began to shift the analysis from a question of duty (an issue of law) to a factor that should be considered when analyzing a potential breach of that duty (an issue of fact). As such, some courts concluded that the defense was not properly addressed at the summary judgment stage.
In October 2014, the Supreme Court appeared to alter course when it affirmed a summary judgment granted on grounds that the alleged defect presented an open and obvious condition. See Bufkin v. Felipe’s Louisiana, LLC, 2014-0288 (La. 10/15/14), — So.3d — 2014 WL 5394087. In reaching this decision, the Bufkin Court focused on the duty element of plaintiff’s case, which seemingly contradicted prior interpretations of Broussard. Thereafter, the Court went even further, affirmatively stating that “[a]ny reading of Broussard interpreting it as a limit on summary judgment practice involving issues of unreasonable risk of harm is a misinterpretation of the Broussard case.” Allen v. Lockwood, 2014-1724 (La. 2/13/15), 156 So.3d 650.
According to Professor Church, Bufkin and Allen reflect a shift back to an analysis of the open and obvious defense on the duty level and remove any doubt regarding whether summary judgment is appropriate in this setting. Professor Church anticipates that the Supreme Court will continue to clarify this doctrine in future decisions. For now, Broussard remains an obstacle, albeit shrinking, in the defense of trip and fall claims.
Author: C. Reynolds LeBlanc